WHAT?   Electric vehicle (EV)

Electric vehicle (EV) is vehicle powered by an electric motor instead of internal combustion engine. EV uses electricity as the fuel instead of gasoline or some other combustible fuel. The electric motor in an EV converts electricity, usually from battery pack, into mechanical power to turn the wheels.

In an electric vehicle (EV), batteries and other energy storage devices store the electricity that powers the electric motor in the vehicle. EV batteries must be replenished by plugging in the vehicle to a power source. Whether charged with an on-board charger or through an external outlet, EV's are powered from the electricity grid.

Although electricity production creates (highly-regulated) emissions, an EV is a zero emission vehicle and its motor produces no exhaust or emissions. In addition, EV's have the potential to reduce Thailand’s dependence on foreign oil. 

WHY? Electric vehicle (EV)

With depletion of oil reserve and increase in pollution levels all over the world, communities turn to the benefits of EV technology that are:

  • They are non-polluting and quite
  • They can be charged easily, saving owners the need to queue at gasoline stations.
  • EVs are mostly charged at night, when power consumption is low, thus making more efficient use of our power plants.
  • They are easy to service and maintain.
  • Most EVs are compact in size and are easy to drive, maneuver and park in congested cities.
  • EVs have a very low operating and maintenance cost.

Energy efficiency and energy savings
In-depth studies show that, all figures being equivalent, taking into account the energy efficiency at both production and distribution level, the consumption figures are as follows:


conventional cars

electric vehicles


fuel consumption / 100 km

electricity equivalent

electricity consumption


8,5 l gasoline

909 Wh / km

488 Wh / km


12 l gasoline

1283 Wh / km

600 Wh / km

Small Lorry

16 l diesel

1910 Wh / km

1000 Wh / km

* Wh ( Watt Hours) , Km (kilometer), l (liter)
Table 1: Average consumption of conventional cars and electric vehicles

These figures show that electric cars, vans or small lories, respectively consume 54%, 47% and 52% of the primary energy needed by internal combustion vehicles. It is clear that electric vehicles are much more energy efficient. This advantage will increase when it will be possible to recharge vehicles by connecting them directly to electricity production sources with a total output efficiency exceeding 50% (plants with combined gas/steam cycle, fuel cells, buffer batteries, etc.).

Taking into account an average mileage of 10,000 km per year, which is the standard figure for vehicles in urban areas, the energy savings obtained by replacing conventional cars by electric vehicles are:


energy savings [kWh / year per vehicle]

energy savings converted into fuel volumes [l / year per vehicle]







Small Lorry



Table 2: Energy and fuel savings due to electric vehicles
When regenerative braking is applied, kinetic energy can be recuperated and sent to the batteries. This can lead to an economy of about 10%.

Battery Electric Vehicles
A battery electric vehicle uses batteries to power an electric motor to propel the vehicle.  BEVs produce no tailpipe emissions.  The batteries are recharged from the grid and from regenerative braking.  Types of battery electric vehicles in widespread use today include low-speed, neighborhood electric vehicles, airport ground support equipment, and off-road industrial equipment such as forklifts.

Three types of batteries are found in electric cars:

  • Lead-acid batteries: Oldest type of rechargeable battery. Cheap to produce and compatible with existing electronics. However, messy, toxic and prone to explosion.
  • Lithium ion batteries [Li-ion]: High energy-to-mass ratio (which means less weight per unit of stored energy). They retain their stored energy when not in use but lose capacity with age. Considered to have the most potential for mass-market EVs but the most advanced models are still costly nowadays.
  • Nickel metal hydride [NiMH]: Good energy-to-mass ratio (a.k.a. energy density). Non-toxic which makes for easy recycling. The major disadvantage to nickel metal hydride batteries is that they don't hold a charge very well when they aren't being used.

Development on batteries is happening around the world these days for more advance, higher energy efficient, and economical batteries- for the future of environmental friendly vehicles

Advantages of battery electric vehicles (BEVs):

  • Zero tailpipe emissions (no CO2 or other pollutants)
  • Use of cleaner electric energy produced through advanced natural gas and coal gasification technologies
  • Energy security by displacing imported petroleum with domestic generated electricity Overnight battery recharging (Neighborhood electric vehicles are recharged by plugging into a standard 110-volt household outlet.)
  • Recycled energy from regenerative braking
  • Lower fuel and operational costs
  • Possible use in secondary markets for used batteries and reduced waste

Source: EDTA -,

WHAT? Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEV)

Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEV), or low-speed vehicle (LSV), clean running and compact NEV’s are cost-effective solutions for short commutes where traffic, parking, and air pollution pose significant problems.  NEV’s (like full size EV’s) are zero emission vehicles that produce no tailpipe or evaporative emissions. 

  • NEVs emit zero tailpipe emissions or evaporative emissions that contribute to air pollution and global warming. 
  • NEVs are smaller and take up less space on the road, so they help reduce traffic congestion. 
  • They are inexpensive to fuel because the cost of electricity per kilowatt-hour usually compares favorably to that of gasoline. 
  • More than 95% of the electricity used to recharge NEV’s originates from domestic resources, so driving an NEV reduces the nation's dependence on imported oil.